Election of Indian President

Process of Election of Indian President

Election of Indian President is indirectly elected by an Electoral College by means of proportional representation and single transferable vote and voting is done by secret ballot.

Four important aspects in election of Indian President:

1. Electoral College:

It refers to all the members who are eligible to vote in the Presidential election.

Consists of elected members of Parliament, elected members of legislative assembly of the states and elected members of legislative assembly of the Union Territories of Delhi and Puducherry.

It is to be noted that all the members of Electoral College of the President are elected and no member is nominated.

2. Indirect Election:

In an indirect election people don’t vote directly in the election. However, it is the representatives of the people who vote on behalf of the people.

3. Proportional representation:

There is two-fold proportional representation in the election of Indian president.

1) In the Electoral College of the President, the states are represented in proportion to their population. Larger the population of a state, greater the representation a state enjoys in the Electoral College.

Representation of a State (or UT) = Population of a state (or a UT) (1971 census) ×  1/1000

Population of a State is divided by 1000 to make the calculations easier.

The representation of the States was frozen on the basis of 1971 census because representation of the states on the basis of recent census was rewarding those states which have witnessed larger increase in their population by way of greater representation in the election of President.

The number of votes for MLAs is as follows(Source Wikipedia):

S. No. Name of the State/Union Territory Number of State Legislative Assembly seats (elective) Population (1971 Census)[3] Value of the vote of each MLA Total value of votes for the State/Union Territory
1 Andhra Pradesh 175 27,800,586 159 27,825
2 Arunachal Pradesh 60 467,511 8 480
3 Assam 126 14,625,152 116 14,616
4 Bihar 243 42,126,236 173 42,039
5 Chhattisgarh 90 11,637,494 129 11,610
6 Delhi 70 4,065,698 58 4,060
7 Goa 40 795,120 20 800
8 Gujarat 182 26,697,475 147 26,754
9 Haryana 90 10,036,808 112 10,080
10 Himachal Pradesh 68 3,460,434 51 3468
11 Jammu and Kashmir[5] 87 6,300,000 72 6,264
12 Jharkhand 81 14,227,133 176 14,256
13 Karnataka 224 29,299,014 131 29,344
14 Kerala 140 21,347,375 152 21,280
15 Madhya Pradesh 230 30,016,625 131 30,130
16 Maharashtra 288 50,412,235 175 50,400
17 Manipur 60 1,072,753 18 1,080
18 Meghalaya 60 1,011,699 17 1,020
19 Mizoram 40 332,390 8 320
20 Nagaland 60 516,499 9 540
21 Odisha 147 21,944,615 149 21,903
22 Puducherry 30 471,707 16 480
23 Punjab 117 13,551,060 116 13,572
24 Rajasthan 200 25,765,806 129 25,800
25 Sikkim 32 209,843 7 224
26 Tamil Nadu 234 41,199,168 176 41,184
27 Telangana 119 15,702,122 132 15,708
28 Tripura 60 1,556,342 26 1,560
29 Uttar Pradesh 403 83,849,905 208 83,824
30 Uttarakhand 70 4,491,239 64 4,480
31 West Bengal 294 44,312,011 151 44,394
Total 4,120 549,302,005 549,495

States (and UTs) are represented through elected MLAs.

Therefore, Value of vote of elected MLAs of a State (or UT) = Population of a state (or a UT) (1971 census) ×  1/1000

Value of vote of an elected MLA of a particular state = (Population of a state (1971 census))/(Number of elected MLAs of a state)  ×  1/1000

2) In the electoral college of President, all the States and UTs on one hand and Union on the other hand are equally represented.

Therefore, Value of vote of elected MPs = Value of vote of elected MLAs of States and UTs

Thus, Value of vote of an elected MP =(Value of vote of elected MLAs)/(Number of elected MPs)

4. Single transferable vote:

Under the system of single transferable vote, a voter (elected MP or MLA voting in election of Indian President) has the right to indicate more than one preference for the candidates.

A candidate is declared elected if he or she obtains more than 50 per cent of the votes. In the first round of counting only first preference votes are taken into consideration.

If a candidate secures more than 50% of the votes, then he or she is declared to be elected.

If no candidate is able to obtain majority in the first round of counting, the candidate who gets the least number of first preference votes get eliminated and his balance of votes is distributed among rest of the candidates according to second preference of votes.

Again counting of votes is undertaken. Thereafter, if a candidate secures more than 50% of the votes, then he/she is declared elected. If not, this process continues till a candidate gets majority of votes.

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